Project C09 analyzes the role of Confucian academies within the context of knowledge transfer in and between premodern Confucian societies in East Asia. Since the late 12th century Confucian academies have played a crucial role in the dissemination, institutionalization, and regulation of Confucian teaching throughout the region vis-à-vis the official system of the state examinations and traditional forms of education. The idea of elite Confucian education represented by academies was widely practiced within the whole of East Asia, but implemented in various forms and contexts. In order to detect transformation and adaptation strategies related to the concept of Confucian academies, the project analyzes normative writings of the academies (study regulations, ritual prescriptions, reading curricula, etc.) from a synchronic and diachronic perspective. The main focus is devoted to Korean Confucian academies of the Chosŏn-Dynasty in the 16th and 17th century (sŏwŏn). The project examines transfer and change of normative texts and concepts of Confucian academies both in Korea and East Asia as well as processes of re-contextualization and diversification of the academy concept within local and individual contexts.